Orissa is of a heterogeneous character.
It's geological formations vary
from the oldest rocks of the earth's
crust in the stable land mass
of the Indian Peninsula to Deltaic
alluvium or littoral deposits
and ridges of wind blown sand
on the Seaboard.
State can be devided in to 4 natural
Divisons: (1) The Northern Plateau
. (2) The Eastern Ghats (3) The
Central Tract and (4) The Coastal
Plains. The Northern Plateau is
an extension of the Chhotanagapur
Plateau covering Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar,
and Eastern Sundergarh areas.
The upper reaches of the rivers
Subernarekha, Baitarani and Brahmani
lie in the area. It's central
portion contains many small hills
and forests. The Eastern Ghats
form an undulating plateau that
extends over Koraput, parts of
Kalahandi, Phulbani and Ganjam.
The central tract covers the districts
of Sambalpur, Bolangir and Dhenkanal
and parts of Kalahandi, Sundergarh
and Phulabani. The rivers Mahanadi,
Brahmani, and Baitarani and their
tributaries flow through the area.
The land scape consists of a succession
of plateaus, hills, uplands and
valleys. The coastal plains comprise
Balasore, Cuttack,and Puri districts
and parts of Ganjam. This fertile
area runs parallel to the coast
and contains the river deltas;
it is formed of alluvium and silt.
The main rivers
are the Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga,
Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi,
Rushikulya and Bansadhara. Notable
mountain ranges are the Mahendragiri
(rising to 4924 feets), the Mallyagiri
(3896 feet), and the Meghasini
(3823 feet). Orissa's Chilika
lake is the biggest salt water
lagoon in India.
situated in the hot climatic belt
where the monsoon windsblow. The
main seasons are Summer from mid-February
to June, the rainy season from
July to October, and the winter
from November to Mid-February.
Places in Sambalpur and Mayurbhanja
districts have an extreme climates,
where as in places like Puri and
Gopalpur the climate is equable.
The average rain fall is about
is of a tropophilous character-that
is to say it is able to adapt
it self to a rapidly changing
environment. Forests cover about
40% of the total land area. In
forest wealth, Orissa ranks among
the top states in India. The forests
are of 3 broad types; Northern
Tropical semi ever green ; Northern
tropical moist deciduous; and
Northern tropical dry deciduous.
The first group includes the Mango;
the second group includes, for
example, Teak; while the third
the same animal life as the rest
of Peninsula India. Monkeys are
common. Carnivores include different
Tigers. The Elephant, Wild Buffalo,
The Black Buck, and the four -
Horned Antelope are found in some
districts. The Peafowl is one
of the features of Orissa Forests.
Lake Chilika is noted for its